The panel will interrogate digitalisation as an opportunity and/ or risk in transformation-to-sustainability processes in urbanised areas. Smart City paradigms have been criticised as technology-dependent, market-driven tools that serve specific power constellations and fail to address the actual needs of billions of urban residents worldwide. How can we transgress a binary reading of digitalisation versus cities for all? Can we think of real smart cities that empower communities through socially-embedded digital innovations? Can digitalisation foster citizen agency?